Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Morella faya
(Myricaceae)

candleberry myrtle, fayatree, firebush, firetree

image of Morella faya image of Morella faya image of Morella faya
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HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING

A message from Dr. David Duffy, Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (PCSU), University of Hawaii (posted 05 November 2012):

Because of a lack of funds, HEAR (www.hear.org) may close as soon as December 15, although there may be enough funds to extend it until February 15. This will mean several things. The web site will be placed on a new server although it is not clear who will pay for the server or for transitioning the site. HEAR data will not be updated. The Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (http://www.hear.org/pier/abtproj.htm) site will also become frozen, as will numerous books, reports and papers (http://www.hear.org/). As software evolves we will likely lose the ability to access the data. The various list servers will need new owners, otherwise moderated lists will cease to function altogether, while other lists will not be able to add or delete members. The photo collection (http://www.hear.org/starr/images/?o=plants) will remain accessible, but only through a third party site that will charge for access.

I should point out that we have already lost the original homes of both the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) and Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) although they have found temporary refuges. Together with HEAR, they represent the corporate memory both here in Hawaii and across the Pacific of efforts to sustain our natural ecosystems and agriculture against problems caused by species alien to the islands. HEAR also serves as the glue that holds the community together, providing information and facilitating communication. I just hope hindsight is kind to this decision.

PLEASE SEND YOUR COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS TO webmaster@hear.org

Let us know if you have suggestions for additional references to add to this page.

Firetree (Morella faya) is an evergreen shrub or small tree up to 26 feet tall. Its fruits are pink to red or blackish when mature, and appear bumpy.   In Hawaii, Myrica faya creates dense stands, displacing native vegetation. It is a nitrogen-fixing tree, which means that it has the capability to alter entire ecosystems, especially those that are naturally nutrient-poor.  Myrica faya was introduced to Hawaii as an ornamental plant and a backyard food crop (for berry wine) by Portuguese laborers in the 1800s and was spread in Hawaii as a reforestation tree in the 1920s.  Morella faya (fire tree, formerly Myrica faya) was introduced to Hawaii in the late 1800s, presumably by Portugese immigrants who may have used the fruit for wine. The tree was later used for reforestation. Since its introduction to Hawaii, Morella faya has invaded thousands of acres of higher elevation areas, and has been declared a noxious weed in the state.  Morella faya is native to Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands. 

Species description or overview

Morella faya information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Morella faya from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Morella faya information from PIER
Information on Morella faya as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).

Morella faya on Maui (Hawaii, USA): species information View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This report on the species Morella faya in Hawaii--with particular emphasis on its status on the island of Maui--includes information about the taxonomy, description, biology and ecology, distribution, control methods, and management recommendations, as well as references.

Morella faya information
Morella faya ecology, habitat, dispersal, and management are from The Global Invasive Species Database.

Morella faya description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Morella faya as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Fire Tree (Morella faya) NPS fact sheet
The fire tree's range, description, ecological threat, distribution, habitat, biology, management options, and suggested alternatives are outlined in this NPS Plant Conservation Alliance Alien Plant Working Group fact sheet.

Morella faya information from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Morella faya is presented with respect to this species being a forest tree in Hawaii. The information on this site is from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1989 publication by Little and Skolmen entitled "Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced)."


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Morella faya
Nomenclatural information about Morella faya is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Morella faya information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Morella faya--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Morella faya information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Morella faya, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Morella faya
Nomenclatural information about Morella faya is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Impacts

Morella faya (Myricaceae): species information from GCW
Information on Morella faya as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Morella faya impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Morella faya as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Risk assessments

Morella faya weed risk assessment for Hawaii-Pacific
Results of a weed risk assessment for Morella faya for the Hawaii-Pacific region are presented by the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment team.


Control methods

Morella faya information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Morella faya from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Control of firetree (Myrica faya Aiton) with herbicides in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Several herbicide treatments and two application methods were tested to identify effective combinations safe to use on firetrees surrounded by native plants (University of Hawaii, 1991).

Morella faya management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Morella faya as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Biocontrol efforts

Insect survey of potential biological control agents of Myrica faya in the Azores and Madeira Islands, 1988 (full text)
A colony of the leaf-rolling caterpillar Phyllonorycter myricae was collected and returned to quarantine in Hawaii for study as a biocontrol of Myrica faya (Morella faya), according to the publication at the HEAR bibliography site (University of Hawaii, 1990).

Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W. 2002. Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii. pp. 91-98 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001
Culliney, Thomas W., Walter T. Nagamine, and Kenneth K. Teramoto. 2003. Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. (2003) 36:145-153.

Morella faya as a biocontrol target in Hawaii
Information and references regarding Morella faya as a biocontrol target in Hawaii--including the status of each of its biocontrol agents--are provided by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).


Images

Images of Morella faya (Myricaceae) (firetree)
Links to high-resolution free images of Morella faya (Myricaceae) (firetree) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Morella faya information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Morella faya in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Morella faya images from PIER
Images of Morella faya provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Morella faya information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Morella faya in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Map of Myrica faya (Myricaceae) on the main Hawaiian Islands
online

Map of Myrica faya (Myricaceae) on the main Hawaiian Islands
Population densities of coqui frogs at the Lava Tree State Monument on the Big Island will be monitored by the University of Hawaii.

Distribution of Myrica faya (Myricaceae) in the Hawaiian Islands as of 08/96
Distribution of Myrica faya (Myricaceae) in the Hawaiian Islands as of 08/96

Map of estimated distribution of Myrica faya (Myricaceae) on the island of Kauai
Map of estimated distribution of Myrica faya (Myricaceae) on the island of Kauai

Map of estimated distribution of Myrica faya (Myricaceae) on the island of Lanai
CTAHR

Morella faya information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Morella faya--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Morella faya on Maui (Hawaii, USA): species information View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This report on the species Morella faya in Hawaii--with particular emphasis on its status on the island of Maui--includes information about the taxonomy, description, biology and ecology, distribution, control methods, and management recommendations, as well as references.

Firetree (fayabush, Morella faya) overview from the Hawaii Invasive Species Council (HISC).
Description, impacts, image, and distribution in Hawaii of nitrogen-fixing faya bush are from HISC's high-profile invasive pests site.

Morella faya worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Morella faya is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Books

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.


In the news

Self-feeding as a bad thing (Raising Islands Blog, 22 August 2007)
Invasive species like firetree (Myrica faya) and albizia Falcataria moluccana, which fix their own nitrogen, alter the characteristics of whole ecosystems. Bloggist Jan TenBruggencate reviews research on how "self-feeders" can facilitate the invasion of other alien species.


Full-text articles

Insects associated with firebush (Myrica faya Aiton)
Krauss, N.L.H. 1964. Insects associated with firebush (Myrica faya Aiton). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 18, no. 3:405-11.

Myrica faya: Review of the biology, ecology, distribution, and control, including an annotated bibliography
Lutzow-Felling, Candace J., Donald E. Gardner, George P. Markin, and Clifford W. Smith. 1995. Myrica faya: Review of the biology, ecology, distribution, and control, including an annotated bibliography. Technical report 94. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Insect survey of potential biological control agents of Myrica faya in the Azores and Madeira Islands, Portugal, 1988
Markin, George P. 1991. Insect survey of potential biological control agents of Myrica faya in the Azores and Madeira Islands, Portugal, 1988. Technical report 108. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Plants associated with Myrica faya and two other pioneer trees on a recent volcanic surface in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park
Mueller-Dombois, Dieter and Louis D. Whiteaker. 1990. Plants associated with Myrica faya and two other pioneer trees on a recent volcanic surface in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Phytocoecologica 19, no. 1:29-41.

Control of firetree (Myrica faya Aiton) with herbicides in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Several herbicide treatments and two application methods were tested to identify effective combinations safe to use on firetrees surrounded by native plants (University of Hawaii, 1991).

Control of firetree (Myrica faya Aiton) with herbicides in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Pratt, Linda W., Gregory L. Santos, and Charles P. Stone. 1991. Control of firetree (Myrica faya Aiton) with herbicides in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Technical report 82. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Stand analysis of an invading firetree (Myrica faya Aiton) population, Hawaii
Smathers, Garrett Arthur and Donald E. Gardner. 1979. Stand analysis of an invading firetree (Myrica faya Aiton) population, Hawaii. Pacific Science 33, no. 3:239-55.

Biological invasion by Myrica faya in Hawai'i: Plant demography, nitrogen fixation, and ecosystem effects
Vitousek, Peter M. and L.R. Walker. 1989. Biological invasion by Myrica faya in Hawai'i: Plant demography, nitrogen fixation, and ecosystem effects. Ecological Monographs 59:247-65.

Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii
Vitousek, Peter M., L.R. Walker, Dieter Mueller-Dombois, and P.A. Matson. 1987. Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii. Science 238:802-4.

Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii
Vitousek, Peter M., Ronald L. Walker, Louis D. Whiteaker, Dieter Mueller-Dombois, and P.A. Matson. 1987. Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii. Science 238:802-4.

Germination of an invading tree species (Myrica faya) in Hawaii
Walker, L.R. 1990. Germination of an invading tree species (Myrica faya) in Hawaii. Biotropica 22, no. 2:140-145.

Firetree (Myrica faya) distribution in Hawai'i
Whiteaker, Louis D. and Donald E. Gardner. 1992. Firetree (Myrica faya) distribution in Hawai'i. In Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawai'i: Management and research, edited by Charles P. Stone, Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison, 225-40. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Copies of unpublished correspondence regarding exploration for Myrica faya diseases and insect predators (mid 1950s)
Bianchi, F. ?. Copies of unpublished correspondence regarding exploration for Myrica faya diseases and insect predators (mid 1950s).

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

Feeding damage of the introduced leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) to plants in forests and watersheds of the Hawaiian Islands
Jones, Vincent P., Puananai Anderson-Wong, Peter A. Follet, Pingjun Yang, Daphne M. Wescot, John S. Hu, and Diane M. Ullman. 2000. Feeding damage of the introduced leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) to plants in forests and watersheds of the Hawaiian Islands. Environmental Entomology 29(2) (April 2000). pp. 171-180.

Insect survey of potential biological control agents of Myrica faya in the Azores and Madeira Islands, 1988 (full text)
A colony of the leaf-rolling caterpillar Phyllonorycter myricae was collected and returned to quarantine in Hawaii for study as a biocontrol of Myrica faya (Morella faya), according to the publication at the HEAR bibliography site (University of Hawaii, 1990).

The distribution of Myrica faya within Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Technical report
Camrath, R. and J. Timothy Tunison. ?. The distribution of Myrica faya within Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Technical report. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI.

Alteration of earthworm community biomass by the alien Myrica faya in Hawaii
Aplet, Gregory H. 1990. Alteration of earthworm community biomass by the alien Myrica faya in Hawaii. Oecologia 82:414-16.

Experimental restoration of a dense faya tree (Myrica faya) stand.
Aplet, Gregory H., R. Loh, J. Timothy Tunison, and Peter M. Vitousek. in prep. Experimental restoration of a dense faya tree (Myrica faya) stand. Technical report. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI.

Locally established Botrytis fruit rot of Myrica faya, a noxious weed in Hawaii
Duffy, B.K. and Donald E. Gardner. 1994. Locally established Botrytis fruit rot of Myrica faya, a noxious weed in Hawaii. Plant Disease 78, no. 9:919-23.

Decline of invasive faya in Hawai'i
Duffy, B.K. and Donald E. Gardner. 1995. Decline of invasive faya in Hawai'i. Newsletter of the Hawaiian Botanical Society 34:1,3-5.

Survey for potential biological control agents for Myrica faya in the Azores and Madeira
Gardner, Donald E., George P. Markin, and Charles S. Hodges. 1988. Survey for potential biological control agents for Myrica faya in the Azores and Madeira. Technical report 63. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Understory succession following a dieback of Myrica faya in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Adler, Peter B., Carla M. D'Antonio, and J. Timothy Tunison. 1998. Understory succession following a dieback of Myrica faya in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Pacific Science 52, no. 1:69-78.

Myrica faya: Potential biological control agents
Hodges, Charles S. and Donald E. Gardner. 1985. Myrica faya: Potential biological control agents. Technical report 54. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
Medeiros, A.C. 2004. Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu.

Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds.) . 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages.

Classical biological control of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) in Hawaii using multiple strategies
Conant, Patrick. 2002. Classical biological control of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) in Hawaii using multiple strategies. pp. 13-20 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W. 2002. Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii. pp. 91-98 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001
Culliney, Thomas W., Walter T. Nagamine, and Kenneth K. Teramoto. 2003. Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. (2003) 36:145-153.

Myrica faya control in Hawai'i
Kim, J.Y. 1969. Myrica faya control in Hawai'i. Down to Earth 25:23-25.

Morella faya on Maui (Hawaii, USA): species information View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This report on the species Morella faya in Hawaii--with particular emphasis on its status on the island of Maui--includes information about the taxonomy, description, biology and ecology, distribution, control methods, and management recommendations, as well as references.

Remote analysis of biological invasion and biogeochemical change
Airborne imaging spectroscopy and photon transport modeling revealed how biological invasion by Myrica faya and Hedychium gardnerianum altered the chemistry of forest canopies across a Hawaiian montane rain forest landscape (Gregory P. Asner and Peter M. Vitousek, PNAS, 2005).


Experts

Morella faya contacts
Morella faya contacts provide information and advice (Invasive Species Specialist Group-ISSG).

Morella faya contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Morella faya as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

Oviposition of the invasive two-spotted leafhopper on an endemic tree: Effects of an alien weed, foliar pubescence, and habitat humidity View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about the two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia) on a native Hawaiian forest tree in the article "Oviposition of the invasive two-spotted leafhopper on an endemic tree: Effects of an alien weed, foliar pubescence, and habitat humidity."

References for Morella faya
Morella faya references are provided by ISSG (Invasive Species Specialist Group).

Finding hidden invaders in a Hawaiian rain forest
"By applying novel measurement techniques from a high-altitude aircraft, scientists detected two species of invading plants that are changing the ecology of rain forest near the Kilauea Volcano in the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park."

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
After rain forest of Haleakala National Park was fenced in the late 1980s, native vegetation responded vigorously yet three problematic plant invaders (Clidemia hirta, Hedychium gardnerianum, and Psidium cattleianum) continued to spread unabated and became of great concern to Park managers. This contribution provides a quantitative assessment of crucial life history junctures (quantitative phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal, seed predation, seedling establishment) to assist Haleakala NP and other managers of Hawaiian rain forests. It also provides detailed information for potentially identifying key characteristics in prevention, rapid response, and prioritization of incoming invasive species. (This document is the 2004 Ph.D. dissertation of Dr. Arthur C. Medeiros for the Department of Zoology at the University of Hawaii.)

Insects associated with firebush (Myrica faya Aiton)
Krauss, N.L.H. 1964. Insects associated with firebush (Myrica faya Aiton). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 18, no. 3:405-11.

Dothiorella sp. Agente de murchidao em Myrica faya Ait
Azevedo, N.F.S. 1960. Dothiorella sp. Agente de murchidao em Myrica faya Ait. Publicacoes Da Direccao Geral Dos Sericos Florestais e Aquicolas 27:101-15.

Myrica faya: Review of the biology, ecology, distribution, and control, including an annotated bibliography
Lutzow-Felling, Candace J., Donald E. Gardner, George P. Markin, and Clifford W. Smith. 1995. Myrica faya: Review of the biology, ecology, distribution, and control, including an annotated bibliography. Technical report 94. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Insect survey of potential biological control agents of Myrica faya in the Azores and Madeira Islands, Portugal, 1988
Markin, George P. 1991. Insect survey of potential biological control agents of Myrica faya in the Azores and Madeira Islands, Portugal, 1988. Technical report 108. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Plants associated with Myrica faya and two other pioneer trees on a recent volcanic surface in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park
Mueller-Dombois, Dieter and Louis D. Whiteaker. 1990. Plants associated with Myrica faya and two other pioneer trees on a recent volcanic surface in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Phytocoecologica 19, no. 1:29-41.

Control of firetree (Myrica faya Aiton) with herbicides in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Pratt, Linda W., Gregory L. Santos, and Charles P. Stone. 1991. Control of firetree (Myrica faya Aiton) with herbicides in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Technical report 82. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Stand analysis of an invading firetree (Myrica faya Aiton) population, Hawaii
Smathers, Garrett Arthur and Donald E. Gardner. 1979. Stand analysis of an invading firetree (Myrica faya Aiton) population, Hawaii. Pacific Science 33, no. 3:239-55.

Biological invasion by Myrica faya in Hawai'i: Plant demography, nitrogen fixation, and ecosystem effects
Vitousek, Peter M. and L.R. Walker. 1989. Biological invasion by Myrica faya in Hawai'i: Plant demography, nitrogen fixation, and ecosystem effects. Ecological Monographs 59:247-65.

Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii
Vitousek, Peter M., L.R. Walker, Dieter Mueller-Dombois, and P.A. Matson. 1987. Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii. Science 238:802-4.

Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii
Vitousek, Peter M., Ronald L. Walker, Louis D. Whiteaker, Dieter Mueller-Dombois, and P.A. Matson. 1987. Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii. Science 238:802-4.

Germination of an invading tree species (Myrica faya) in Hawaii
Walker, L.R. 1990. Germination of an invading tree species (Myrica faya) in Hawaii. Biotropica 22, no. 2:140-145.

Firetree (Myrica faya) distribution in Hawai'i
Whiteaker, Louis D. and Donald E. Gardner. 1992. Firetree (Myrica faya) distribution in Hawai'i. In Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawai'i: Management and research, edited by Charles P. Stone, Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison, 225-40. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Copies of unpublished correspondence regarding exploration for Myrica faya diseases and insect predators (mid 1950s)
Bianchi, F. ?. Copies of unpublished correspondence regarding exploration for Myrica faya diseases and insect predators (mid 1950s).

The distribution of Myrica faya within Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Technical report
Camrath, R. and J. Timothy Tunison. ?. The distribution of Myrica faya within Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Technical report. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI.

Alteration of earthworm community biomass by the alien Myrica faya in Hawaii
Aplet, Gregory H. 1990. Alteration of earthworm community biomass by the alien Myrica faya in Hawaii. Oecologia 82:414-16.

Experimental restoration of a dense faya tree (Myrica faya) stand.
Aplet, Gregory H., R. Loh, J. Timothy Tunison, and Peter M. Vitousek. in prep. Experimental restoration of a dense faya tree (Myrica faya) stand. Technical report. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI.

Locally established Botrytis fruit rot of Myrica faya, a noxious weed in Hawaii
Duffy, B.K. and Donald E. Gardner. 1994. Locally established Botrytis fruit rot of Myrica faya, a noxious weed in Hawaii. Plant Disease 78, no. 9:919-23.

Decline of invasive faya in Hawai'i
Duffy, B.K. and Donald E. Gardner. 1995. Decline of invasive faya in Hawai'i. Newsletter of the Hawaiian Botanical Society 34:1,3-5.

Survey for potential biological control agents for Myrica faya in the Azores and Madeira
Gardner, Donald E., George P. Markin, and Charles S. Hodges. 1988. Survey for potential biological control agents for Myrica faya in the Azores and Madeira. Technical report 63. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Understory succession following a dieback of Myrica faya in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Adler, Peter B., Carla M. D'Antonio, and J. Timothy Tunison. 1998. Understory succession following a dieback of Myrica faya in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Pacific Science 52, no. 1:69-78.

Myrica faya: Potential biological control agents
Hodges, Charles S. and Donald E. Gardner. 1985. Myrica faya: Potential biological control agents. Technical report 54. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Myrica faya control in Hawai'i
Kim, J.Y. 1969. Myrica faya control in Hawai'i. Down to Earth 25:23-25.

Morella faya references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Morella faya as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) is currently funded by grants from the Hau'oli Mau Loa Foundation and the U.S. Forest Service with support from PCSU (UH Manoa). Historically, HEAR has also received funding and/or support from the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), PIERC (USGS), the USFWS, HCSU (UH Hilo), and HALE (NPS).

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The content of this page is based on information last generated on 05 November 2012 by PT. The template for this page was created on 15 March 2004 by EMS, and was last updated on 02 July 2012 by PT. Valid HTML 4.01!