Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Linepithema humile
(a type of insect)

Argentine ant

  
image of Linepithema humile
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Species description or overview

JAnt: species: Linepithema humile
Images of Monomorium pharaonis, its description and distribution in Japan are on this Japanese Ant Database page.

IPM Tactics for Argentine Ant Control
Fire Ants -- Teaching Resources

Introduced species in Hawaii: Hymenoptera: Formicidae
The factors that make the Argentine ant, the long legged ant, and the big-headed ant successful and detrimental invaders in Hawaii are discussed in this senior seminar presentation from Earlham College.

Argentine Ant View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
General information on Linepithema humile is provided by the Virginia Cooperative Extension.

AntWatch: Ants of Hawaii
Antwatch provides images and descriptions of ants that have been introduced to Hawaii.

Management Guidelines for Ants on Citrus
public domain

Those pesky tramp ants (Pest Control Technology Online)
Polygyny, monomorphism, and colony dispersal by budding and fission allow tramp ant species to succesfully invade new territories. These and other characteristics that benefit tramp ants are discussed in this article.

Argentine ant (Linepithema humile; syn.: Iridomyrmex humilis [Formicidae]) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Rod Randall - Western Australia Dept. of Agriculture

Linepithema humile description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Linepithema humile as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

Linepithema humile information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Linepithema humile, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868) taxonomy from ITIS
ITIS, the Integrated Taxonomic Information System, lists taxonomic data for Linepithema humile and allows searches of other databases.


Identification

Key to ant species in Hawaii
13 physical characteristics are the basis of this computer-assisted key for identifying the 48 species of ants in Hawaii.

AntWeb field guide to the ant species of Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Images of 20 of the ant species of Hawaii help to identify the species.


Impacts

2000 Progress Report - IMPACTS OF THE ARGENTINE ANT (LINEPITHEMA HUMILE) ON POLLINATION
This summary of a current research project on Linepithema humile that will explores the species' effects on pollination.

Native Hawaiian pollinators threatened by Argentine ants
The Argentine ant threatens pollinators of silversword plants at Haleakala National Park.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy (2000) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The status of invasive plants, vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, and crustaceans, and options for a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific are presented in this series of articles from the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000.

Effects of the Argentine ant on arthropod fauna of Hawaiian high-elevation shrubland (abstract)
Invasion of the Argentine ant has reduced the abundance of many endemic arthropod species in the shrublands surrounding Haleakala National Park, Hawaii (Ecology, 1992).

Exotic ants in the Canary Islands View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Twelve exotic ant species found in the Canary Islands are reviewed.

Introduced species in Hawaii: Hymenoptera: Formicidae
The factors that make the Argentine ant, the long legged ant, and the big-headed ant successful and detrimental invaders in Hawaii are discussed in this senior seminar presentation from Earlham College.

Linepithema humile impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Linepithema humile as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Trophic ecology of invasive Argentine ants in their native and introduced ranges
Argentine ants apparently shift their diet after establishment as a result of resource depletion and increasing reliance on plant-based resources, especially honeydew-producing Hemiptera.


Control methods

Linepithema humile management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Linepithema humile as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Review of the efficacy of baits used for ant control and eradication
Ant species have varying responses to toxins and baits used for their control. This extensive review of published reports is a preamble to the development of recommendations for New Zealand.

Chemical causes ant infighting
Research has demonstrated that normally friendly ants can turn against each other when chemical cues they use to distinguish colony-mates from rivals are manipulated (Science Alert, 2009).


Images

Linepithema humile images
Linepithema humile images are presented by Wikipedia.

Linepithema humile images (Starr)
Images of Linepithema humile (Formicidae) (Argentine ant are provided by from Forest and Kim Starr.

PCD4441-02 Linepithema humile
High definition images are provided by the Japanese Ant Image Database.

UC IPM Photo
This entry was automatically generated by the Paradox script ITISPLTS.SSL.

Argentine ant, Linepithema humile images
An Argentine ant carrying a dead companion is one of the images posted on this Bug Guide page.

Ants in Hawaii images
Images of many ant species found in Hawaii are on this page of photos taken by Neil Reimer, Hawaii State Department of Agriculture.


Distribution

Map of estimated distribution of Linepithema humile (Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park (Maui, Hawaii, USA)
The Argentine ant is established at Park headquarters and crater overlook, according to this map.

Linepithema humile -- Argentine Ant
This clickable map shows the distribution of this species around the world.

Map of Linepithema humile in Halakala NP, Mauihema humile on Maui (Haleakala NP)]" border="0" width="365" height="467"> View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Map of Linepithema humile in Halakala NP, Maui as of 1996.

Argentine ant, Linepithema humile images
An Argentine ant carrying a dead companion is one of the images posted on this Bug Guide page.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy (2000) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The status of invasive plants, vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, and crustaceans, and options for a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific are presented in this series of articles from the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000.

Nonindigenous ants associated with geothermal and human disturbance in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (abstract)
Ants were common in areas disturbed by geothermal or human activity in HawaiiVolcanoes National Park, but rare in undisturbed forest. Warmth generated by geothermal activity extended the range of some lowland ant species (Pacific Science, 1998).

Status and distribution of ants in the Crater District of Haleakala National Park (abstract)
Possible impacts of three species of ants on endemic flightless insects in the Haleakala Park area are discussed (Pacific Science, 1982).

Colony structure in introduced and native populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (abstract)
The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, severely decreases the abundance and diversity of native ant fauna in areas where it invades, but coexists with a more diverse assemblage of ants in its native range ( Insectes Sociaux, 2004).

Aggression studies reveal the existence of ant supercolonies
Agression studies indicate there are two supercolonies of Argentine ants in Europe. Genomic differences may lead to different responses and recognition among related and unrelated ants (Genome News Network, 2002).

Linepithema humile worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Linepithema humile is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Trophic ecology of invasive Argentine ants in their native and introduced ranges
Argentine ants apparently shift their diet after establishment as a result of resource depletion and increasing reliance on plant-based resources, especially honeydew-producing Hemiptera.

Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: Insights from Argentine ants
This article uses historic and current data to try and understand the ways that Linepithema humile spreads.


Books

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.


In the news

Chemical causes ant infighting
Research has demonstrated that normally friendly ants can turn against each other when chemical cues they use to distinguish colony-mates from rivals are manipulated (Science Alert, 2009).

Native Hawaiian pollinators threatened by Argentine ants
The Argentine ant threatens pollinators of silversword plants at Haleakala National Park.

Scientists Question Reports Of Massive Ant Supercolonies In California And Europe
This article was published in Science Daily on 2004-04-08.


Full-text articles

Selection for uniformity: xenophobia and invasion success View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
FIX THIS DESCRIPTION: THE "ARTICLE" DOES NOT "LOOK AT" ANYTHING...!! This article looks at the significance of Linepithema humile's unicolonial behavior.

Potential impact of the Argentine Ant (Linepithema humile) in New Zealand and options for its control View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The Biodiversity Conservation Information System (BCIS) is consortium of ten international conservation organizations and programs of IUCN working together toward a common goal: to support environmentally sound decision-making and action by facilitating access to biodiversity data and information.

The effect of the Argentine ant on the threatened valley elderberry longhorn beetle View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The United States Geological Survey Biological Resources Division.

Ant invasions of mamane-naio forest at high elevations on Mauna Kea.
The potential impact of ants upon the endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper -- palila -- was studied on the dry sub-alpine slopes of Mauna Kea.

Long-term dynamics of the distribution of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, and native ant taxa in northern California View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
no info readily available as of 20050806

The Colony Structure and Population Biology of Invasive Ants View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This article reviews the population biology of invasive ants (Linepithema humile & Solenopsis invicta) and focuses on the role of sociality and colony structure in their success.

Argentine Antagonists
this article in the online version of Faultline Magazine examines the problem of the introduced species in California that has no natural biological controls.

Community Structure of House-Infesting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Southern Bahia, Brazil View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This article examines the community structure of house invading ants in Brazil.

Soil-free collection of Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) based on food directed brood and queen movement View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This article outlines a method for collecting this species.

Alien species and the extinction crisis of Hawaii's invertebrates View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Invertebrates are the glue that hold Hawaii's ecosystems together, and the natives are in crisis (Adam Asquith, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995).

Pacific Ant Prevention Plan View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This proposal was prepared by ISSG for the Pacific Plant Protection Organization and Regional Technical Meeting For Plant Protection in March 2004.

Exotic ants in NZ: A ticking timebomb? View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This article highlights a number of research projects that are currently being carried out on exotic ants by Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research, collaborators and University students.

Relationships among native and introduced populations of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile ) and the source of introduced populations View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This 11 pg. article discusses the genetic variations of Linepithema humile in Brazil and Argentina.

Hydrocarbon-released nestmate aggression in the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, following encounters with insect prey
This article abstract examines how contact with a certain species of cockaroach seems to induce nestmate agression in Linepithema humile.

Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: Insights from Argentine ants
This article uses historic and current data to try and understand the ways that Linepithema humile spreads.

Reduced genetic variation and the success of an invasive species
Research on Argentine ants indicates reduced genetic variability and formation of supercolonies allow interspecific dominance of the highly invasive ants. This research also suggests induced intraspecific aggression could be used to control the ants (Proceedings National Academy of Science, 2000).

Ecological Effects of Fuel Modification on Arthropods and Other Wildlife in an Urbanizing Wildland View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The Urban Wildlands Group, describes increase in Linepithema humile populations following controlled burns in Southern California.

Community disassembly by an invasive species View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
By using 7 years of data in a biological preserve in northern California, researchers at Humboldt State University documented the disassembly of native ant communities during an invasion by the Argentine ant.

Selection for uniformity: xenophobia and invasion success View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The invasive Argentine ant Linepithema humile forms unicolonial societies in which conflict between colonies is absent. This research addresses an evolutionary paradox: the evolution of indiscriminate altruism (TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 2003).

The ecology, policy, and management of ants in Hawaii (Proc. Hawaiian Entomol Soc., 2005)
The ecology and impacts of the roughly 45 ant species introduced to Hawaii, and their implications for agriculture, other sectors of the economy, and the conservation of native biodiversity, are reviewed (abstract with link to full article).

A review of the association of ants with mealybug wilt disease of pineapple (Proc. Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003)
The mutualism between ants and mealybugs on pineapple is reviewed.

Colony structure in introduced and native populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (abstract)
The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, severely decreases the abundance and diversity of native ant fauna in areas where it invades, but coexists with a more diverse assemblage of ants in its native range ( Insectes Sociaux, 2004).

Floral visitation patterns of two invasive ant species and their effects on other hymenopteran visitors
The Argentine ant Linepithema humile, and the big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala, affected nectar volume and floral hymenopteran visitors on ohia flowers (Lori Lach, Ecological Entomology, 2008).

Floral visitation patterns of two invasive ant species and their effects on other hymenopteran visitors View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The Argentine ant Linepithema humile, and the big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala, affected nectar volume and floral hymenopteran visitors on ohia flowers (Lori Lach, Ecological Entomology, 2008).

Argentine and other ants in New Zealand horticultural ecosystems: distribution, hemipteran hosts, and review View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Linepithema humile and Paratrechina vaga are commonly found in horticultural crops tending hemipteran insects and may cause significant economic impacts.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy
South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP). Sherley, Greg (ed.) . 2000. Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. Apia, Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. ISBN: 982-04-0214-X.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Competitive advantages of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This research paper details mechanisms of competitive success that allow the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) to invade and displace native ant populations.

The causes and consequenses of ant invasions View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This article reviews the ecological effects of invasive ants on continents and islands. Tables and extensive references are provided.

Loss of Wolbachia infection during colonisation in the invasive Argentine ant Linepithema humile
The Argentine ant Linepithema humile may lose infection by symbiotic bacteria Wolbachia when the ant invades new territories (Heredity, 2005).

Invasibility of native habitats by Argentine ants, Linepithema humile, in New Zealand View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The spread of Argentine ants from urban environments into native habitats in New Zealand was investigated (New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 2005).

Trophic ecology of invasive Argentine ants in their native and introduced ranges
Argentine ants apparently shift their diet after establishment as a result of resource depletion and increasing reliance on plant-based resources, especially honeydew-producing Hemiptera.

The role of opportunity in the unintentional introduction of nonnative ants (Proceedings National Academy of Science)
The authors study ant species unintentionally transported into the US and relate opportunity and species-level ecological attributes to the probability of establishment.

Reduced genetic variation and the success of the invasive Argentine ant View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The reduction of genetic diversity in the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) contributes to its success as an invasive species by allowing the formation of supercolonies in which workers and queens mix freely among physically separate nests.

Invasive ants alter the phylogenetic structure of ant communities View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"Invasive species displace native species and potentially alter the structure and function of ecological communities. In this study, we compared the generic composition of intact and invaded ant communities from 12 published studies and found that invasive ant species alter the phylogenetic structure of native ant communities." (from the abstract)


Abstracts

Rainfall facilitates the spread, and time alters the impact, of the invasive Argentine ant
Invasive Argentine ants, Linepithema humile, may have the most severe effect on the displacement of native ant species early in the invasion process (Oecologia, 2007).


Experts

Linepithema humile contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Linepithema humile as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

Ant News
This internet blog has some interesting info on the latest research articles for Linepithema humile and other species -- be sure to check out the archives.

Information index for selected alien invertebrates in Hawaii
Links to information about selected alien invertebrates, which are or would be invasive or harmful if in Hawaii, are provided by HEAR.

Argentine ant (Linepithema humile; syn.: Iridomyrmex humilis [Formicidae]) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Rod Randall - Western Australia Dept. of Agriculture

Hoike o Haleakala Curriculum -- Web of Life Game View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
In this game students explore how various endemic and introduced species interact in the alpine/Aeolian regions of Haleakala, including the invasive ant species Linepithema humile.

Hoike o Haleakala Curriculum # Ant Alert: How Does Invasion Threaten Natives? View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Students prepare a presentation on Argentine ant in Haleakala National Park based on handouts and a video.

Hoike o Haleakala Curriculum # Controlling the Argentine Ant View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
GCW database housed at HEAR (www.hear.org/gcw)

Linepithema humile references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Linepithema humile as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


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