Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Hedychium gardnerianum
(Zingiberaceae)

kahili ginger, kahili ginger, yellow ginger

image of Hedychium gardnerianum image of Hedychium gardnerianum image of Hedychium gardnerianum
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HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING

A message from Dr. David Duffy, Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (PCSU), University of Hawaii (posted 05 November 2012):

Because of a lack of funds, HEAR (www.hear.org) may close as soon as December 15, although there may be enough funds to extend it until February 15. This will mean several things. The web site will be placed on a new server although it is not clear who will pay for the server or for transitioning the site. HEAR data will not be updated. The Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (http://www.hear.org/pier/abtproj.htm) site will also become frozen, as will numerous books, reports and papers (http://www.hear.org/). As software evolves we will likely lose the ability to access the data. The various list servers will need new owners, otherwise moderated lists will cease to function altogether, while other lists will not be able to add or delete members. The photo collection (http://www.hear.org/starr/images/?o=plants) will remain accessible, but only through a third party site that will charge for access.

I should point out that we have already lost the original homes of both the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) and Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) although they have found temporary refuges. Together with HEAR, they represent the corporate memory both here in Hawaii and across the Pacific of efforts to sustain our natural ecosystems and agriculture against problems caused by species alien to the islands. HEAR also serves as the glue that holds the community together, providing information and facilitating communication. I just hope hindsight is kind to this decision.

PLEASE SEND YOUR COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS TO webmaster@hear.org

Let us know if you have suggestions for additional references to add to this page.

Kahili ginger, Hedychium gardnerianum, is an ornamental plant that escaped cultivation and has become one of the worst invasive species in Hawaii's forests. It is also recognized as one of the "world's 100 worst invasive alien species" by the IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).  Hedychium gardnerianum is native to Asia. 

Featured items

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
After rain forest of Haleakala National Park was fenced in the late 1980s, native vegetation responded vigorously yet three problematic plant invaders (Clidemia hirta, Hedychium gardnerianum, and Psidium cattleianum) continued to spread unabated and became of great concern to Park managers. This contribution provides a quantitative assessment of crucial life history junctures (quantitative phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal, seed predation, seedling establishment) to assist Haleakala NP and other managers of Hawaiian rain forests. It also provides detailed information for potentially identifying key characteristics in prevention, rapid response, and prioritization of incoming invasive species. (This document is the 2004 Ph.D. dissertation of Dr. Arthur C. Medeiros for the Department of Zoology at the University of Hawaii.)


Species description or overview

Hedychium gardnerianum information from PIER
Information on Hedychium gardnerianum as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).

Hedychium gardnerianum description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Hedychium gardnerianum as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Hedychium gardnerianum
Nomenclatural information about Hedychium gardnerianum is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Hedychium gardnerianum information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Hedychium gardnerianum--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Hedychium gardnerianum information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Hedychium gardnerianum, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Hedychium gardnerianum
Nomenclatural information about Hedychium gardnerianum is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Pest alerts

Kahili ginger pest alert View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) is the featured "Weed of the Week" on the radio program sponsored by Kauai Community Radio and the Kauai Invasive Species Committee (KISC). This pest alert is available on KISC's "Weed of the Week" site.


Impacts

Kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) Weed of the Week radio program transcript View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Kahili ginger is the featured "Weed of the Week" on the radio program sponsored by Kauai Community Radio and the Kauai Invasive Species Committee (KISC). This transcript describes the impacts of this species on Kauai.

Hedychium gardnerianum (Zingiberaceae): species information from GCW
Information on Hedychium gardnerianum as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Hedychium gardnerianum impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Hedychium gardnerianum as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Risk assessments

Hedychium gardnerianum weed risk assessment for Hawaii-Pacific
Results of a weed risk assessment for Hedychium gardnerianum for the Hawaii-Pacific region are presented by the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment team.


Control methods

Hedychium gardnerianum management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Hedychium gardnerianum as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Management information for kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum)
This entry was automatically generated by the Paradox script ITISPLTS.SSL.

Herbicidal weed control methods for pastures and natural areas of Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This comprehensive review of herbicide application methods includes calculations for formulations, and appendices listing herbicides registered for use in Hawaii and their toxicities (University of Hawaii, 2002).


Biocontrol efforts

Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W. 2002. Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii. pp. 91-98 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.


Biocontrol (potential for use as)

Hedychium gardnerianum as a biocontrol target in Hawaii
Information and references regarding Hedychium gardnerianum as a biocontrol target in Hawaii--including the status of each of its biocontrol agents--are provided by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).


Images

Images of Hedychium gardnerianum (Zingiberaceae) (kahili ginger)
Links to high-resolution free images of Hedychium gardnerianum (Zingiberaceae) (kahili ginger) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Hedychium gardnerianum information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Hedychium gardnerianum in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Hedychium gardnerianum images from PIER
Images of Hedychium gardnerianum provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Hedychium gardnerianum information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Hedychium gardnerianum in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Hedychium gardnerianum information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Hedychium gardnerianum--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy (2000) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The status of invasive plants, vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, and crustaceans, and options for a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific are presented in this series of articles from the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000.

Hedychium gardnerianum worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Hedychium gardnerianum is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Books

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

A field guide to tropical and subtropical plants
Perry, Frances and Roy Hay. 1982. A field guide to tropical and subtropical plants. Ward Lock Limited, Great Britain. 136 pp. illus. ISBN: 0-442-26859-9.


In the news

Kahili ginger recalls royalty, but it is not native View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The impacts and dispersal of invasive kahili ginger in the native forests of Maui are reviewed (Maui Invasive Species Committee Kiai Moku Maui News article, 1/11/2009).


Full-text articles

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
After rain forest of Haleakala National Park was fenced in the late 1980s, native vegetation responded vigorously yet three problematic plant invaders (Clidemia hirta, Hedychium gardnerianum, and Psidium cattleianum) continued to spread unabated and became of great concern to Park managers. This contribution provides a quantitative assessment of crucial life history junctures (quantitative phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal, seed predation, seedling establishment) to assist Haleakala NP and other managers of Hawaiian rain forests. It also provides detailed information for potentially identifying key characteristics in prevention, rapid response, and prioritization of incoming invasive species. (This document is the 2004 Ph.D. dissertation of Dr. Arthur C. Medeiros for the Department of Zoology at the University of Hawaii.)

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy
South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP). Sherley, Greg (ed.) . 2000. Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. Apia, Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. ISBN: 982-04-0214-X.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
Medeiros, A.C. 2004. Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu.

Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii.
Starr, F., K. Starr, and Loope L. 2006. Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii. An addendum to the 1999 Botanical Survey of Midway Atoll.

Botanical survey of Midway Atoll
Starr, F. and K. Martz. 1999. Botanical survey of Midway Atoll. In: 1995-1999 Baseline Surveys for Alien Species in Marine and Terrestrial Habitats on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds.) . 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages.

Predictable risk to native plants in biological control of weeds in Hawaii
Pemberton, Robert W. 2002. Predictable risk to native plants in biological control of weeds in Hawaii. pp. 77-85 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W. 2002. Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii. pp. 91-98 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Remote analysis of biological invasion and biogeochemical change
Airborne imaging spectroscopy and photon transport modeling revealed how biological invasion by Myrica faya and Hedychium gardnerianum altered the chemistry of forest canopies across a Hawaiian montane rain forest landscape (Gregory P. Asner and Peter M. Vitousek, PNAS, 2005).


Experts

Hedychium gardnerianum contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Hedychium gardnerianum as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

Finding hidden invaders in a Hawaiian rain forest
"By applying novel measurement techniques from a high-altitude aircraft, scientists detected two species of invading plants that are changing the ecology of rain forest near the Kilauea Volcano in the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park."

Hedychium gardnerianum references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Hedychium gardnerianum as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) is currently funded by grants from the Hau'oli Mau Loa Foundation and the U.S. Forest Service with support from PCSU (UH Manoa). Historically, HEAR has also received funding and/or support from the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), PIERC (USGS), the USFWS, HCSU (UH Hilo), and HALE (NPS).

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