Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Terminalia ivorensis
A.Chev., Combretaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment).

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Ivory Coast almond, black afara, blackbark, brimstonewood, idigbo, satinwood, shinglewood

French: framiré

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A large deciduous forest tree ranging in height from 15 to 46 m, branchless for up to 30 m, dbh 2-4.75 m. Bole clean, very straight with small buttresses and sometimes fluted. Mature trees very flat topped with a wide horizontal canopy of evenly distributed foliage arising from the apex of the straight bole. In young trees, the branches are whorled; deciduous, young shoots and foliage falling a few years after initial growth, leaving sockets to mark their original position on the bole. Bark smooth and light grey to dark brown when young and on branchlets; in mature trees often blackish, with deep longitudinal fissures. The bark flakes off in long thin strips. Slash yellow. T. ivorensis forms a good taproot supported by 6-8 powerful lateral roots. There is also evidence of a widespread and rather superficial root system. Leaves 6.4-12.7 x 2.5-6 cm, whorled, simple, oval, blunt tipped with orange-brown hairs below and on veins above, also on the short stalks; 6-7 pairs widely spaced veins, prominent below. Flowers in axillary spikes 7.6-10.2 cm long with bisexual flowers nearly to the apex. The lower receptacle is densely tomentose, the upper receptacle less so. Fruit winged and somewhat variable in size, especially in the width of the wings. Elongated and narrow, emarginate and slightly decurrent, 5.8-10 x 1.7-2 cm, finely tomentose with very short reddish or orange-brown hairs, pedicel 7-11 mm long. When ripe it is reddish-brown and woody, frequently having a weevil hole; oval seed in the centre, 1.5 cm"  (Agroforestree database).

Habitat/ecology:  "Found at elevations from sea level to 700 m. It is sometimes found in rainforest conditions but is predominantly a tree of seasonal forest zones. It is an emergent in the upperstorey of seasonal forest but sometimes loses its vertical-growing leader, resulting in considerable variation in height of mature trees. A strong light demander and a good colonizer of abandoned farmlands, it can withstand short periods of inundation, though it is usually sensitive to waterlogging. For optimum development, it requires high, well-distributed rainfall. The most suitable soils are lateritic loams, well-drained loams, sandy loams, clay loams and volcanic soils. It is very vulnerable to fire. It requires wide spacing"  (Ecocrop).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Africa (Cameroon, Cote D'Ivoire; Ghana; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Nigeria; Sierra Leone) (GRIN).


Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1997) (voucher ID: BISH 661943)
Taxon name on voucher: Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev.

Control:  If you know of control methods for Terminalia ivorensis, please let us know.

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This page was created on 18 DEC 2010 and was last updated on 15 JAN 2011.