Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Schoenoplectus juncoides
(Roxb.) Palla, Cyperaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Scirpus juncoides Roxb.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ying lin

English: bulrush, hardstem bullrush

Habit:  sedge

Description:  "Tufted in clumps, without a conspicuous rhizome; culms 15-70 cm tall, 1-4 mm thick, subterete or obtusely several-angled, light green, dull, clothed at base with few sheaths only; sheaths 3 or 4, the lower ones scale-like, brownish, the upper ones 5-15 cm long, pale green, obliquely truncate at mucronate orifice; inflorescence a pseudolateral head with (1-) 2-9 (-12) spikelets; bract 5-15 cm long, rather suddenly subacute at apex, 1-furrowed on ventral side, dilated at base; spikelets oblong to ovoid-oblong, 6-18 mm long, 3-6 mm broad, straw-colored, rather suddenly contracted to subobtuse apex, densely many-flowered; glumes oval to ovate-oval, 3-4 mm long, 1.8-2.7 mm broad, thickly membranous, pale and brown-tinged, the apex rounded to shallowly emarginate and mucronate, the keel broad, green, 1- or 3-nerved; achenes broadly obovate, unequally biconvex, 1.8-2 mm long, about 1.5 mm broad, suddenly contracted to cuneate base, rounded to mucronate apex, the sides maturing dark brown, shiny, transversely wrinkled; style 2-2.2 mm long, somewhat flattened; stigmas 2, but occasionally with a rudimentary third one; hypogynous bristles 4-6, retrorsely scabrous except for base, 4 as long as or slightly surpassing the achene, the others half as long as the achene or shorter" (Smith, 1979; pp. 236-237).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "occurring in and around bogs, pond margins, and in wet forest, (5-) 180-1,370 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1432). In Fiji, "occurs in swamps and open places, along roadsides, and especially in rice fields, at elevations of sea level to 150 m" (Smith, 1979; pp. 236-237).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Occurring in wet sites, often in rice fields, from Japan south to Malesia and India, disjunct in Hawai‘i and Fiji" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1432). "From India through southeastern Asia and Japan into Malesia and northern Australia, occurring as an adventive in other parts of the Pacific" (Smith, 1979; pp. 236-237).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 236-237)
Vouchers cited: DA 8785, DA 10459
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 236-237)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 980, DA 11440, DA 2851, DA 9443, Smith 8850, DA 11827, DA 10574, DA 11000, DA 8591
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 178)
Rare--only found once.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 78)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1432-1433)
Voucher cited: Stemmermann 6694
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1432-1433)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 78)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, E. (1092) (p. 63)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Reported as possibly an invasive plant in southeast Asia (Barbara Waterhouse, pers. com.).

Additional information:
Additional online information about Schoenoplectus juncoides is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Schoenoplectus juncoides as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Schoenoplectus juncoides may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20:1-126.

Hafliger, E. 1092. Monocot Weeds 3. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 132 pp. plus plates.

Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. 1997. The distribution and importance of arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture and forestry plantations in southern China. ACIAR, Canberra, Australia. 185 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 1. 494 pp.

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 30 MAY 2005 and was last updated on 8 JUL 2012.