Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Paspalum vaginatum
Sw., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Palspalum distichum sensu auct. non L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: hai que bai

English: biscuit grass, knot grass, knottweed, salt grass, saltwater couch, saltwater paspalum, seashore grass, seashore paspalum, silt grass, swamp couch

Fijian: kambutu

French: herbe rampante

I-Kiribati: te utiuti

Mangarevan: motie, mutie

Maori (Cook Islands): mauku ta‘atai, mauku ta‘atai, mauku vairākau

Marquesan: matie, mutie

Marshallese: katejukjuk, wûjooj

Niuean: mosie kalalahi

Pohnpeian: dimur, dumwur, timoor

Samoan: mutia

Spanish: grama de costa, grama de mar, gramilla, gramilla blanca, gramón

Tongan: mohuku ano

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Extensively creeping perennials, stoloniferous, often forming extensive colonies, the stolons slender and wiry to stout and slightly fleshy; culms slightly compressed, 2.5-5 (-10) dm long, glabrous, the flowering ones usually shorter, usually grooved, ± branching, sterile culms with short, broad, loose, often overlapping sheaths, and conspicuously distichous, stiffly ascending blades, or bladeless.  Sheaths often keeled, with small auricles; ligule membranous, ca. 0.5 mm long, with a ring of soft white hairs behind it, the hairs sometimes up to 5 mm long; blades usually stiff, ascending at an uniform angle, 2.5-15 cm long, 3-8 mm wide at base, narrower than summit of sheath, apex attenuate, involute, base abruptly contracted.  Racemes 2 (-5), opposite or closely approximate, at first erect and appressed together, usually spreading or reflexed at maturity, often subfalcate, 1.5-7.5 cm long, rachis naked at base, 1-2 (-2.5) mm wide, triangular, flexuous, margins minutely scabrous; spikelets pale, solitary, imbricate, oblong, 3-4.5 mm long, 1.2-1.5 mm wide; first glume rarely developed, second glume and first lemma equal, thin, 3-7-nerved, the midnerve of both usually obscure, glabrous; first lemma usually transversely undulate, sometimes conspicuously so; second lemma convex, usually 3-5-nerved, apex with a few short, stiff cilia, otherwise glabrous; palea flat, 0-2-nerved, similar to lemma.  Caryopsis narrowly obovate, slightly concavo-convex, 2.5-3 mm long, subacute"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1577-1578).

Description from GrassBase.

See also Paspalum distichum L. for records of this closely related species.  Many occurrences throughout the Pacific region may be misidentified as Paspalum distichum.

Habitat/ecology:  "Salt grass is pantropical in distribution, but is likely to have been an unintentional European introduction over most of its Pacific range.  In Micronesia it is found in nearly all the Micronesian archipelagoes, including the Marshall Islands (many atolls), where it appears to be a modern natural arrival.  [On Kwajalein} it is occasional to locally common in sunny coastal areas"  (Wagner & Steele, 1999; p. 88).  On Majuro, Marshall Islands, it is a "weedy plant forming dense patches near beaches and brackish marshy areas; often found in, or bordering, taro pits"  (Vander Velde, 2003; p. 52).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in coastal sites in shallow brackish water and on brackish sands, often forming pure stands at sea level"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1578).  On Niue, "commonest on the more exposed south- and east-facing coasts"  (Sykes, 1970; p. 250).  On Guam, "usually near the sea or in brackish marshes, sometimes in mangrove regions"  (Stone, 1970: p. 217).  "In Fiji it is usually found near sea level...on beaches and creek banks and in mangrove swamps"  (Smith 1979; p. 336).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Native range unknown, now widely distributed in warm temperate to tropical sea coasts and brackish marshes worldwide" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1578).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 24)
Vouchers cited: W. Harris 305 (BISH), A. Harris 73 (BISH)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 16355)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum vaginatum Sw.
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island possibly native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"Although possibly native, this species has not, as far as is known, been recorded from the Island for about a century". Voucher cited: 1898, J.H. Maiden (K, NSW)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Nassau Island native
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll native
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island native
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island native
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Lorence 9393 (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 60)
Vouchers cited: A. Dores 97 (BISH, NY, PTBG), A. Dores 219 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 78 (BISH, NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 26125 (BISH), R. Gallen 74 (NY, PTBG), S.F. Glassman 2630 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2649 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2898 (BISH), E.Y. Hosaka 3466 (BISH), E.Y. Hosaka 3563 (BISH), T. Hosokawa 6127 (BISH), N.L.H. Krauss 1898a (BISH), S.H. Riesenberg 71 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2006) (voucher ID: PTBG 49082)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum vaginatum
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island native
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: St. John 14948 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island native
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: St. John 14636 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Makaroa Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Makaroa Island native
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Quayle & Curtis 454 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island native
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 8)
Vouchers cited: St. John 14551 (BISH), Fosberg 11069 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7379 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42407)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum vaginatum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 8506 (PAP). As Paspalum distichum L.: Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4395 (PAP), s. nom coll. 4252 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43299)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum vaginatum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12057 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Paspalum distichum L. Voucher cited: J. Florence 4610 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Paspalum distichum L. Voucher cited: J. Florence 3468 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10613 (PAP). As Paspalum distichum L.: Voucher cited: J. Florence 5258 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 37018)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum vaginatum Sw.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & J.-C. Jolinon 8084 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9026 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10071 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Paspalum distichum L. Voucher cited: J. Florence 4071 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tepoto Nord Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Paspalum distichum L. Voucher cited: J. Florence 5771 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1578)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1578)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Herbarium Pacificum Staff (1999) (p. 8)
West Maui. Voucher cited: C. Imada, K. Evans & M. Nishimoto 98-30
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110147 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1578)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 13182 (BISH)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 23095)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum vaginatum Sw.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 23094)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum vaginatum Sw.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 4)
"Abundant to very abundant; along roadsides and in fields, forming large patches often dominating low-lying vegetation of wetland areas".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 54)
As Palpalum distichum L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 88)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31189, Fosberg 31207, Fosberg 34123, Herbst 9051, Whistler 11162, Whistler 11196
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 43973)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum vaginatum Sw.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 3)
"Uncommon to rare; patch near school in Ine observed from distance".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0627200906
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 54)
As Palpalum distichum L.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 52)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A7)
Uncommon; small area in cistern of old school and few wetland areas of Mili. Voucher 0723201003 (BISH, GUAM, PTBG)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 1)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0513200905
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2009) (voucher ID: PTBG 49812)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum vaginatum
Niue
Niue
Niue Island native
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 249-250)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168741, CHR 168743
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 17)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 146)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 67)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 57)
In open wet lands, usually in places subject to the influence of salt or brackish water.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 108)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3863)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum vaginatum Sw.
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 108)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 108)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 108)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 343)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 67)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 108)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 67)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 108)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 570)
"Coastal, often brackish, areas; often forming swards near edge of mud flats, or on sandy and shingly shores and occasionally spreading into pasture nearby".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 67)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 269)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 67)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 39)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 25)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 36853 (US)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 269)

Additional information:
Additional online information about Paspalum vaginatum is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Paspalum vaginatum as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Paspalum vaginatum may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Edgar, E./Connor, H. 2000. Flora of New Zealand, vol. V: Gramineae. Manaaki Whenua Press. .

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20:1-126.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar. 1980. Grass weeds, vol. 1. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 142 pp. + plates.

Henty, E. E. 1969. A manual of the grasses of New Guinea. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 1. Lae, New Guinea. 215 pp.

Herbarium Pacificum Staff. 1999. New Hawaiian plant records for 1998. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1998. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 58:3-11.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Palau. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 44 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1925. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 1 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 463 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1972. Voucher specimen #PTBG23094(Derral Herbst 2657).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1972. Voucher specimen #PTBG23095(Derral Herbst 2742).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1989. Voucher specimen #PTBG3863(Art Whistler 6712).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1990. Voucher specimen #PTBG37018(Jacques Florence 10613).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1992. Voucher specimen #PTBG16355(Art Whistler 8921).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1998. Voucher specimen #PTBG43973(Art Whistler 11162).

Oppenheimer, Hank L. 2003. New plant records from Maui and Hawai‘i Counties. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2001-2002. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 73:3-30.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Smith, Albert C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 1. 494 pp.

St. John, Harold. 1988. Census of the Flora of the Gambier Islands, Polynesia. Pacific Plant Studies 43. Honolulu, Hawaii. 34 pp. [Privately published].

Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. 2000. Survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawai‘i. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers No. 65. 35 pp.

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Unknown. 0. Plants found in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. Gilbert and Ellis Islands Colony. Dept. of Agriculture, Technical Handbook. Unpaged typed manuscript.

Vander Velde, Nancy. 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Atoll Research Bulletin No. 503:1-141.

Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2006. Plants of Kili Island, Marshall Islands. Unpublished checklist. 12 pp.

Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2007. Arno plants [preliminary working listing of plant species]. Unpublished checklist, 13 pp.

Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2009. Specimens from Likiep, Majuro, Wotje and Arno (unpublished checklist). 4 pp.

Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2010. Survey of Invasive Plant Species and Other Plants of Mili Atoll, Marshall Islands. USDA Forest Resource Management Grant Program. Unpublished report. 6 pp, plus tabulation of plants of Mili Atoll, 23 pp.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Waterhouse, D. F. 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 141 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1991. The ethnobotany of Tonga: The plants, their Tongan names, and their uses. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Botany 2. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 155 pp. ISBN 0-930897-57-9.

Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Prepared for Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center. 111 pp.

Whistler, W. Arthur. 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Isle Botanica. 49 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1945. Plants of the Manua Islands. Bishop Mus. Bull. 184. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 73 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 6 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.