Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Linaria purpurea
(L.) Mill., Plantaginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk (based on second screen), score: 1 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Antirrhinum purpureum L.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: purple linaria, purple toadflax

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Glabrous, perennial herb with stout rootstock; stems to c. 80 cm tall, branching towards apex. Leaves 2.5-8 cm x 2-6 mm, linear or narrow-lanceolate, glaucous; apex acute. Inflorescence long; flowers in dense, many-flowered, glabrous racemes, borne on each stem branch. Bracts 1.5-3 mm long, narrow-linear, < or > pedicels at anthesis. Calyx 1.5 mm long, lobed to base; lobes lanceolate or narrow-ovate, obtuse to acute. Corolla 12-15 mm long (including slightly curved spur 5-7 mm long), purple or pink, occasionally lower lip white, spotted purple, and pouch white-bearded; upper lip 3-4 mm long. Capsule 2-4 mm in diameter, subglobose. Seed 1-1.3 mm long, sharply 3-angled, rugose, black, wingless"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 1194).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand, "roadsides, waste places, railway tracks, many open disturbed habitats near settlements, to c. 700 m in the MacKenzie Basin"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 1194).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Italy; also cultivated (GRIN).


Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
Randall, R. P. (2007) (p. 285)
British Columbia (province of Canada)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1194)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control:  If you know of control methods for Linaria purpurea, please let us know.

Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (

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This page was created on 14 DEC 2012 and was last updated on 20 DEC 2012.