Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) Full-text articles
RE: (potentially) invasive species in Hawaii and the Pacific


Hawaii & Pacific Islands Harmful non-indigenous species Horticulture industry Watershed issues Biocontrol
Miconia Feral ungulates Snakes in Hawaii Caribbean frogs Herp prevention PIER reports Legislation Conservation Other

This page highlights online full-text scientific and/or news articles regarding problem-causing alien species (or those that are potentially so) in Hawaii. Suggestions of other online articles for inclusion here are solicited.

 
 
Status and Trends report logo

Hawaii and the Pacific Islands

Hawaii and the Pacific Islands PDF icon (USGS 1999)
This is an excellent, in-depth, and profusely-illustrated article describing Hawaii, including its biogeography, natural history, and current biological status. It's a "must read" for any student of Hawaiian biology! Now available in two online versions: the full version PDF icon  (nearly 4Mb); and the full text, less supplemental images PDF icon (843 Kb). Loope, L.L. 1998. Hawaii and Pacific islands. Pages 747-774 in M.J. Mac, P.A. Opler, C.E. Puckett Haecker, and P.D. Doran (editors). Status and Trends of the Nationís Biological Resources, Volume 2. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA. This online version: http://www.hear.org/articles/pdfs/hawaii_and_the_pacific.pdf

Invasive species in the Pacific: a technical review and draft regional strategy PDF icon (Sherley [ed.]/SPREP 2000)
Referred to simply as "the SPREP report" by many who know it, this document was published by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) in June 2000 with funding assistance from the Government of Australia. Its foreword states: "The publication contains a series of technical reviews of land and freshwater invasive species, non-technical summary of the same together with an account of legislation about invasive species, and the pathways by which these species gain access to countries. Also included is a draft regional strategy for invasive species." (URL: www.sprep.org.ws/att/publication/000159_Invasive_strategy_and_species.pdf)

Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species (Veitch & Clout [eds.]/IUCN-SSC-ISSG 2002)
"The papers and abstracts published in this book are the outcome of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives held at the University of Auckland, 19 to 23 February 2001. This conference sought to focus on the subject of: 'Eradication of invasive species from islands; methods used and the results achieved.'" (Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N. [eds.]. 2002. Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species. Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission No. 27. IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.) (URL: www.hear.org/articles/turningthetide/turningthetide.pdf)

General Ecology of Northeast Outer Slopes of Haleakala Crater, East Maui, Hawaii. (Vogl, Richard J., 1971) [New!]
A 1969 expedition, sponsored by The Nature Conservancy, was undertaken to obtain basic biological data on the unexplored northeast outer slopes of Haleakala Crater. The area is adjacent to Haleakala National Park and Kipahulu Valley, and is within the Hana Forest Reserve of the State of Hawaii Division of Forestry. It is hoped that the results of this preliminary exploration might initiate an interest in and understanding of the ecology of one of the few remaining intact and undisturbed biotas of Hawaii Nei. (URL: www.hear.org/articles/vogl1971/)

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest. (Medeiros, A.C. 2004. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu.)
After rain forest of Haleakala National Park was fenced in the late 1980s, native vegetation responded vigorously yet three problematic plant invaders (Clidemia hirta, Hedychium gardnerianum, and Psidium cattleianum) continued to spread unabated and became of great concern to Park managers. This contribution provides a quantitative assessment of crucial life history junctures (quantitative phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal, seed predation, seedling establishment) to assist Haleakala NP and other managers of Hawaiian rain forests. It also provides detailed information for potentially identifying key characteristics in prevention, rapid response, and prioritization of incoming invasive species. (Medeiros, A.C. 2004. Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu.) (URL: www.hear.org/articles/medeiros2004dissertation/)

Eradicating invasive plants: Hard-won lessons for islands PDF icon (Veitch & Clout [eds.]/IUCN-SSC-ISSG 2002)
From abstract: "The record of eradicating invasive plants, whether on islands or continents, consists of few clear victories, some stalemates, and many defeats. Instructive, if hard-won, lessons have nevertheless been learned." (Pages 164-172 in Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N. [eds.]. 2002. Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species. Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission No. 27. IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.) (URL: www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/TurTid/Mack.pdf)

Kahului Airport Pest Risk Assessment ("KARA report") (HDOA 2002)
"By conducting seven, three- to four-week inspection blitzes between September 2000 and July 2001,the Plant Quarantine Branch of the Hawaii Department of Agriculture performed a risk assessment on the movement of alien species from the continental United States and foreign areas to the Island of Maui through Kahului Airport. The Kahului Airport Pest Risk Assessment (KARA) involved intensive inspections of checked and carry-on-baggage by inspectors and detector dog teams; inspections of aircraft cabins and cargo holds of mainland flights; and 100% inspections of agricultural products shipped by air cargo." (URL: http://hawaii.gov/hdoa/pi/pq/KARA PDF icon)

Noxious plants of the Hawaiian ranges (Hosaka & Thistle 1954)
This booklet by Edward Y. Hosaka and Alan Thistle was published by the University of Hawaii in 1954. The contents of this booklet are now available online in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of its publication. It contains an interesting historical perspective to the issue of "noxious plants" in Hawaii. [Hosaka, Edward Y. and Alan Thistle. 1954. Noxious plants of the Hawaiian ranges. University of Hawaii Extension Bulletin 62. 40 pp. (no ISBN listed)] (URL: www.hear.org/articles/npothr1954/)

Hawaii's Terrestrial Ecosystems: Preservation and Management (Stone & Scott 1985)
The full text of the book entitled Hawaii's Terrestrial Ecosystems: Preservation and Management is now available online. (Citation: Stone, Charles P. and J. Michael Scott, eds. 1985. Hawaii's terrestrial ecosystems: preservation and management [proceedings of a symposium held June 5-6, 1984 at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park]. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii. Honolulu. 584 pp. ISBN: [?]) (URL: www.hear.org/books/hte1985/)

Alien Plant Invasions in Native Ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and Research New URL (Stone, Smith, and Tunison [eds.] 1992)
The full text of the book Alien Plant Invasions in Native Ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and Research is now available online. [Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison, eds. 1992. Alien Plant Invasions in Native Ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and Research (papers from a symposium organized by the National Park Service and the Cooperative National Resources Unit at the University of Hawaii, which was held in conjunction with the Sixth Conference in Natural Sciences at hawaii Volcanoes National Park in 1986). University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. Honolulu. 887 pp. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6] (URL: www.hear.org/books/hte1985/)

The Maui forest trouble: a literature review and proposal for research  PDF icon (Holt 1983)
This report by Robert Alan Holt was originally published as part of the University of Hawaii's "Hawaii Botanical Science Paper" series in 1983, and is now available online for download. (URL: www.hear.org/articles/tmftholt1983/)

Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pastures and Natural Areas of Hawaii  PDF icon (Motooka, Ching, & Nagai 2002)
This publication was authored by Philip Motooka and Lincoln Ching of the Univerisiy of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR), and by Guy Nagai of the Hawaii Department of Agriculture. Information is included about when herbicides should be applied for maximum effectiveness, which herbicides to choose for particular species or situations, and includes illustrated examples of these methods in use. It will soon be joined by an online version of the color-illustrated companion volume entitled Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. (URL: www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/WC-8.pdf)

Using the Internet to Build a Conservation Network: The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project  PDF icon (Van Driesche 2002)
This article highlights the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project as a model for building a conservation network using the internet (by Jason Van Driesche, co-author of the book Nature out of place). (From Conservation in Practice [Summer 2002 Vol. 3, No. 3]. Posted online with permission from the publisher. Copyright 2002 by the Society for Conservation Biology. For subscription information and back issue orders, please visit the Conservation In Practice website.) (URLs: www.hear.org/articles/cip_summer2002v3n3_hear.pdf; www.conservationbiology.org/InPractice)

Hawaii: A Model for Addressing Invasive Species (Loope & Canfield 2000)
Drs. Lloyd Loope & Joan Canfield, USGS scientists in Hawaii, explain that "the Hawaiian Islands provide an ideal laboratory for addressing harmful invasive species problems, because invasive species are the state's dominant biological resource issue today." (URL: www.usgs.gov/invasive_species/plw/hawaii01.html)

The Alien Pest Species Invasion in Hawaii: Background Study and Recommendations for Interagency Planning (Miller & Holt 1992)
This report, published in July 1992, was jointly prepared by Susan Miller of the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and Alan Holt of The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii (TNCH). It is still (2003) widely considered to be the best document of its kind about interagency planning regarding the alien pest species invasion in Hawaii. (URLs: www.hear.org/articles/nrdctnch1992/; www.nrdc.org/; www.nature.org/hawaii/)

Filling the gaps in the fight against invasive species  PDF icon (Ikuma, Sugano, & Mardfin 2002)
This study was prepared in response to Hawaii State Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 45, H.D. 1 (2001), which directed the Legislative Reference Bureau to conduct a study on policy recommendations and funding options for a comprehensive alien invasive species protection and control program for the State of Hawaii. The introduction to the report says, in part: "The Legislature recognized the environmental and economic threat posed by invasive species and was well aware of the efforts to address this problem by federal, state, county and concerned private organizations. The Legislature, however, was also aware of state invasive species programs that were 'piecemeal [and lacked] adequate rigor, comprehensiveness, and political will ....' To resolve this administrative problem, the Legislature adopted Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 45 in an attempt to provide policy recommendations and funding options to develop a comprehensive invasive species protection and control program for the State of Hawaii. (URL: www.state.hi.us/lrb/rpts02/gaps.pdf)

From endemic to generic: feral pigs and Hawaii's endemic forests (book excerpt:chapter one from "Nature out of place")  PDF icon (Van Driesche & Van Driesche 2004)
Nature out of place: biological invasions in the global age is an excellent recent book on the importance and impacts of invasions by non-native species around the world. This book is insightful, very readable, and packed with case studies & well-researched information. Dr. Lloyd Loope (USGS/Haleakala Field Station) says that this book "is a worthy analog to Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, a vigorous, much-needed wake-up call for American society to the challenges posed by invasions."  The first chapter of Nature out of place PDF icon--one of two chapters of the book which highlights Hawaii as a prime example of the alien species invasion problem--is made available on the HEAR website with the permission of its publisher (Island Press). (www.hear.org/articles/pdfs/noop-c1.pdf)
Nature Out of Place book cover

Impact of alien plants on Hawaii's native biota (Smith [no date])
Eighty-six (86) plant species which have become serious pests of native ecosystems are discussed in this document. The author states in the article's abstract that these species "are discussed with regard to their impact on the ecosystem, dispersal mechanism, fire tolerance, potential for biological control, and their distribution and principal infestation sites." (Note that this article was written some years ago, and a number of extremely important species are not covered in this document.) (URL: www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/cw_smith/impact.htm)

An alliance of biodiversity, agriculture, health, and business interests for improved alien species management in Hawaii (Holt 1996)
This article was written by Alan Holt (The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii (TNCH); CGAPS [Coordinating Group on Alien Pest Species]) for the Norway/UN Conference on Alien Species, July 1-5, 1996. It provides an excellent synopsis of the alien species problem in Hawaii. In addition, it explains the structure and function of CGAPS, a critically-important organization in Hawaii's fight against harmful non-indigenous species. (This document is also available in Adobe Acrobat .PDF formatPDF icon.)

Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) Management Plan for the State of Hawaii  PDF icon (final version, September 2003) (Shluker/TNCH for State of Hawaii/DLNR/DAR 2003)
The Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) Management Plan for the State of Hawaii  PDF icon (final version, September 2003) is now available online. This report is the result of a multi-agency effort coordinated by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii (TNCH) for the State of Hawaii's Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR), Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR). The primary focus of the plan is the identification of feasible, cost-effective management practices and measures to prevent and control aquatic invasive species infestations in an environmentally sound manner. (URLs: www.state.hi.us/dlnr/dar/pubs/ais_mgmt_plan_final.pdf; www.nature.org/hawaii/; http://www.state.hi.us/dlnr/dar/; www.state.hi.us/dlnr/)

Investigating seed dispersal and seed predation in a Hawaiian dry forest community: implications for conservation and management (Chimera 2004: thesis)
Chuck Chimera's 2004 University of Hawaii Master of Science thesis entitled Investigating seed dispersal and seed predation in a Hawaiian dry forest community: implications for conservation and management is now available online. (URL: www.hear.org//articles/chimera2004thesis/)

Uses for equidistant points for animal and plant control and eradication programs (Buddenhagen 2004)
Uses for equidistant points for animal and plant control and eradication programs is a short article by Chris Buddenhagen (Charles Darwin Research Station, Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos, Pacific Ocean). (URL: www.hear.org/articles/equidistantpoints/)

Lawmakers proposing new tools in war against invasive species (Loomis/The Maui News 2004)
A bill being heard by the state Legislature calls invasive species "the single greatest threat to Hawaii's economy and environment and to the health and lifestyle of Hawaii's people," according to this Maui News article (10 March 2003). The full text of the article is available online. (URL: www.kalanienglish.com/news_mauinews_030310.html)


 
 
HNIS in the U.S.

Harmful Non-Indigenous Species

Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in the United States (U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment 1993) <
This excellent publication is an excellent introduction to the impacts of harmful non-indigenous species (HNIS) in the United States. It tackles this broad subject by providing an overview of the status of harmful non-indigenous species in the United States; an analysis of the technological issues involved in dealing with HNIS; harmful NIS; and an examination of the institutional organizations in place to deal with HNIS and the problems they cause. Of particular interest to those addressing HNIS issues in Hawaii is its chapter devoted to case studies of Hawaii PDF icon. (Full citation: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in the United States, OTA-F-565 [Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1993].) (URLs: www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk1/1993/9325_n.html; www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk1/1993/9325/932510.PDF)

The Emigrant Pests (McGregor 1973)
The Emigrant Pests report was prepared by Dr. Russell C. McGregor (consultant and chairman of the "Import Inspection Task Force") for Dr. Francis J. Mulhern (administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) in May, 1973. It is still (2003) regarded as a very important document with respect to invasive species prevention issues. It was, for example, included in its entirety as an appendix to the recently-produced Kahului Airport Risk Assessment document. (Info posted 16AUG2003 by PT) (URL: www.hear.org/articles/mcgregor1973/)

GAO Invasive Species Report  PDF icon (U.S. General Accounting Office 2002)
In October 2002, the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) produced a "Report to Executive Agency Officials" entitled Invasive Species: Clearer Focus and Greater Commitment Needed to Effectively Manage the Problem." PDF icon
An overview of the document's contents is presented here as a compilation of edited excerpts from the introductory text of the document: Harmful invasive species--nonnative plants and animals that are spreading throughout the United States--have caused billions of dollars in damage to natural areas, businesses, and consumers. In 2001, the federal government issued a National Invasive Species Management Plan to focus attention on invasive species and coordinate a national control effort involving the 20 or so federal agencies that are responsible for managing them. This report discusses the economic impacts of invasive species, implementation of the management plan, and coordination of U.S. and Canadian efforts to control invasive species. Existing literature on the economic impacts of invasive species is of limited usefulness to decision makers, although it indicates that the effects of invasive species are significant. Most economic estimates do not consider all of the relevant effects of nonnative species or the future risks that they pose. New initiatives may prompt more comprehensive analysis that could help decision makers make better resource allocations. While the National Invasive Species Management Plan calls for many actions that are likely to contribute to preventing and controlling invasive species in the United States, it does not clearly articulate specific long-term goals toward which the government should strive. In addition, the federal government has made little progress in implementing the actions called for by the plan. GAO recommends that the National Invasive Species Council (1) incorporate data on the economic impacts of invasive species in developing the federal government's budget; (2) add performance-oriented goals and objectives to its updated plan; (3) give high priority to an oversight strategy for measuring progress against results-oriented goals; and (4) examine whether the council is being hampered in its implementation of the plan by the lack of specific legislation. Agencies generally agreed with GAO's recommendations. (Info posted 28OCT2002 by PT) (URL: www.gao.gov/new.items/d031.pdf)

Guilty Until Proven Innocent: Preventing Nonnative Species Invasions  PDF icon (Van Driesche & Van Driesche 2001)
This article from "Conservation in Practice" (Winter 2001 Vol. 2, No. 1) discusses using what's been called the "precautionary principle"--whereby species are considered "guilty" of being potentially invasive until proven "innocent" (non-invasive)--to prevent non-native species invasions. (Posted 24SEP2002. Reprinted with permission from Conservation In Practice. Copyright 2002 by the Society for Conservation Biology.  For subscription information and back issue orders, please visit www.conservationbiology.org/InPractice)

Prioritizing Weeds: The Alien Plant Ranking System  PDF icon (Hiebert 2001)
This article from "Conservation in Practice" (Winter 2001 Vol. 2, No. 1) discusses an alien plant ranking system (APRS), an automated web-based resource that can help managers work through tough decisions about prioritizing the management of alien plants. APRS helps identify those species that have the most serious impact-those on site of limited distribution or off site with a high potential to invade, as well as those that appear innocuous (usually the majority). APRS also helps managers assess the feasibility of controlling the most threatening species. (Posted 24SEP2002. Reprinted with permission from Conservation In Practice. Copyright 2002 by the Society for Conservation Biology.  For subscription information and back issue orders, please visit www.conservationbiology.org/InPractice)

Invasive Woody Plants (The Overstory #89) (Binggeli, Hall, & Healey. 1998)
Invasive Woody Plants (Pierre Binggeli, John B. Hall, and John R. Healey). "Biological invasions are considered to be one of the major threats to the earth's biodiversity. Non-native woody species, introduced by humans, can spread into native forests, pastures, or cultivated areas. Such species are termed, "invasive." Many animals and plants are highly invasive and some species dramatically affect the structure and function of ecosystems."

U.S. Presidential Executive Order #13112 RE: Invasive Species (03 Feb 1999)  PDF icon
U.S. Presidential Executive Order #13112 (03 Feb 1999) was issued "to prevent the introduction of invasive species and provide for their control and to minimize the economic, ecological, and human health impacts that invasive species cause".

Environmental and economic costs associated with non-indigenous species in the United States (Pimentel Lach, Zuniga, & Morrison 1999)
"In this article, we assess as much as possible the magnitude of the environmental impacts and economic costs associated with the diverse non-indigenous species that have become established within the United States. Although species translocated within the United States can also have significant impacts, this assessment is limited to non-indigenous species that did not originate within the United States or its territories."* (*excerpted from abstract) (This document is available in its original HTML format, or as an Adobe Acrobat PDF document.PDF icon)

Silent Invasion (National Wildlife Refuge Association 2002)
press release from the National Wildlife Refuge Association announces: "At a press conference today on Capitol Hill, the National Wildlife Refuge Association (NWRA), joined a bipartisan coalition of Senators, Representatives and the Bush Administration on the eve of the 100th anniversary of the Refuge System, to release Silent Invasion, a new report that examines how invasive species are wreaking havoc on National Wildlife Refuges across the country. Senators Bob Graham (D-FL), Jim Jeffords (I-VT); Congressmen Wayne Gilchrest (R-MD), Nick Rahall (D-WV) and Norman Dicks (D-WA); and Jim Tate, Science Advisor to the Secretary of the Interior, all called for new efforts to stop the invasives." The complete NWRA Silent Invasion PDF icon document is now available online on the NWRA website. (URLs:  www.refugenet.org/new-pdf-files/Silent%20Invasion%20pdf.pdf#search=%22site%3Arefugenet.org%20%22silent%20invasion%22%22; www.refugenet.org/new-pdf-files/Silent%20Invasion%20pdf.pdf#search=%22site%3Arefugenet.org%20%22silent%20invasion%22%22; www.refugenet.org/new%20pdf%20files/Silent%20Invasion%20pdf.pdf) (Info added 15OCT2002 by PT.)

Weed Control Method Handbook (Tu, Hurd, & Randall)
The Nature Conservancy's (TNC's) Wildland Invasive Species Program (WISP) "is proud to announce the much-anticipated electronic publication of this compendium of tools and techniques [Weed Control Method Handbook] useful for managing invasive plants in natural areas. This handbook provides detailed information on the use of manual and mechanical techniques, grazing, prescribed fire, biocontrol, and herbicides, to help you control undesirable invasive plants. It is on the web, free for you to download!"

Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas (Langeland & Burks 2005)
The entire text (including color photographs) of the book "Identification & Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas" is now online. This is an excellent resource, providing information on 62 non-native species that have spread into Florida's public and private conservation lands.

Invasive Species Threaten America's Biological Heritage (Groat 2000)
Chip Groat, director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), comments on the threats to America's biological heritage posed by invasive alien species.

From microbes to mammals: invasive species/biological aliens (U.S. Department of the Interior 2000)
This site links articles from the July/August 2000 issue of People Land & Water (the employee news magazine of the U.S. Department of the Interior) which highlighted biological invasions.

Analysis of the World Trade Organization SPS Agreement (Campbell 1999)
This is the full text of Faith Campbell's June 23, 1999 draft of her "Analysis of the World Trade Organization SPS Agreement", including her "Suggested Components of an Effective Phytosanitary 'Exclusion' Program." (This document is also available in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. PDF icon)

Secretary Babbit's comments RE: a national strategy to combat alien weeds (Babbit 1998)
Presented here are two transcripts, one quoting U.S. Secretary of Interior Bruce Babbit from the Science in Wildland Weed Management Symposium (Denver, CO; April 8, 1998), and one from a nationally-broadcast CBS radio show regarding the same issue.

Alien Species and the Extinction Crisis of Hawaii's Invertebrates New URL (Asquith 1995)
In this article, Adam Asquith describes how the introduction of alien species into the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in an almost unimaginable decline and extinction of invertebrates, and repercussions on the ecosystems. (Endangered Species Update, Vol. 12, No. 6, 1995)

Proceedings of the Workshop on Databases for Nonindigenous Plants, Gainesville, FL, September 1997 (Jacono & Boydstun/USGS 1997)
The Workshop on Databases for Nonindigenous Plants brought together a unique group interested in documenting, tracking, and monitoring the spread of nonindigenous plants. The workshop focused on developing a clearer picture of how databases are being or could be used to document the range and spread of nonindigenous plant populations across the nation. Additionally, it highlighted the importance of needed interagency tools for exchanging information and how information exchange might improve the ability to better document and track these species. By providing a forum to present and discuss databases, an initial step was taken in improving recognition and communication among data managers. The workshop also resulted in a survey and inventory of databases to be used as a resource for administrators and data managers.

Weed Risk Assessment and Prevention in Hawaii: Status and Practicalities PDF icon (Thomas 1999)
Few efforts at weed risk assessment in Hawaii have been undertaken; several of those efforts are described here, and their degrees of success discussed. A number of federal, state, private, and multi-agency organizations have interests in the negative effects of alien species invasions in Hawaii, and may benefit from better weed risk assessment protocols. Weed risk assessment is discussed with respect to its applicability in Hawaii. Economic, political, and other practical aspects of alien species problems are addressed. Finally, issues are addressed which are deemed necessary to progress in the battle against problems caused by invasive alien species in Hawaii. (Philip A. Thomas, Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project [HEAR], submitted 18 January 1999 to the 1st International Workshop on Weed Risk Assessment, Adelaide, Australia.)

IUCN Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss Caused by Alien Invasive Species (Invasive Species Specialist Group [ISSG] 2000)
IUCN Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss Caused by Alien Invasive Species (May 2000) was produced by the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of The World Conservation Union (IUCN). (URLs: www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/publications/policy/invasivesEng.htm; www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/; www.iucn.org)

Florida's Garden of Good and Evil (Jones & Brandon [eds.] 1998)
Florida's Garden of Good and Evil contains links to the proceedings of a joint conference of the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council and the Florida Native Plant Society (4-7 June 1998). (URLs: www.fleppc.org/proceedings/contents.htm; www.fleppc.org/; www.fnps.org/)


Horticulture industry

Working with the Horticultural Industry to Limit Invasive Species Introductions  PDF icon (Snow 2002)
This article from "Conservation in Practice" (Winter 2002 Vol. 3, No. 1) discusses working with the horticultural industry to limit invasive species introductions. (Posted 24SEP2002. Reprinted with permission from Conservation In Practice. Copyright 2002 by the Society for Conservation Biology.  For subscription information and back issue orders, please visit www.conservationbiology.org/InPractice)

Florida Nursery Growers Association (FNGA) urges Florida's Nursery & Landscape industry to phase out 34 plants (FNGA 2001)
The Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association (FNGA) is urging Florida's nursery and landscape industry professionals to phase out production, sale and use of 34 plants that are invasive in natural areas.


Watershed issues

Plant invasions, watersheds, and native ecosystems: preliminary thoughts on the East Maui watershed (Loope & Kraftsow 2001)
This essay by Lloyd Loope and Ellen Kraftsow is based on previously-written material to at least balance the view that "it doesn't make any difference" (about whether or not watersheds on Maui are comprised of native or non-native species). Dr. Loope says, "The ideas were inspired by Ellen Kraftsow of the Maui County Department of Water Supply, who has continually pushed me to articulate why it does indeed make a difference." He is interested in working with someone who wants to develop this topic further. (URL: www.hear.org/articles/pdfs/loopekraftsow20010319.pdf)


Biocontrol

Fighting invasive species with biocontrol (Monson 2005)
"Fighting invasive species with biocontrol" is in-depth article on biocontrol, including information from a talk by Art Medeiros. "It may be the best invasive species article The Maui News has ever produced," according to Lloyd Loope, a USGS research scientist.(URL: www.mauinews.com/story.aspx?id=9257)


Miconia (Miconia calvescens)

1997 Miconia calvescens Tahiti conference proceedings  PDF icon (Meyer & Smith 1997)
"Proceedings of the First Regional Conference on Miconia Control (26-29 August 1997)" ("Actes de la Première Conférence Régionale sur la Lutte contre Miconia (26-29 août 1997)") is now online in French and/or English. The complete document is available as a single PDF file, and the individual papers presented at the conference (as well as separator pages from the original full document) are also presented as individual PDF files. (Thanks to Jean-Yves Meyer & Clifford W. Smith for submitting the original document!)

HEAR HNIS report on Miconia calvescens  PDF icon (HEAR 1997)
This report on Miconia calvescens is a summary of biological information, local (Hawaii) and other invasiveness details, and control methods for this species. This report was authored by Lloyd Loope of the USGS/BRD Haleakala Field Station as a part of a series of Harmful Non-Indigenous Species (HNIS) reports produced by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Miconia calvescens: a summary (Loope, Medeiros, & Conant 1996)
Lloyd Loope (Research Scientist, USGS/BRD/Haleakala Field Station), an early champion of the Miconia control effort in Hawaii, provides a summary of information about this invasive melastome in Hawaii.

Operation Miconia: One Year Later (Grady 1997)
This article from the membership newsletter of The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii is an update on the Hawaii-based "Operation Miconia" one year after its inception (by Grady Timmons, Director of Community Relations, The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii).

For more online information about Miconia calvescens in Hawaii, refer to www.hear.org/miconia.

 
 
Miconia calvescens

Feral ungulates

Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui (Diong 1982)
The searchable full text of the Cheong H. Diong's 1982 doctoral dissertation entitled "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui" is available online. (www.hear.org/articles/articles/diong1982/; link added 16 March 2005 by PT)


 
 
Snakes!

Snakes in Hawaii

"The Risk to Hawaii from Snakes"  PDF icon (Kraus & Cravalho 2001)
The authors of this article in Pacific Science assessed the risk to Hawaii's native species and human quality of life posed by the introduction of alien snake species (there are no native snakes in Hawaii). They conclude that if a set of proposed measures are not implemented to reduce the rate of snake introduction to Hawaii that "successful establishment of ecologically dangerous snakes in Hawaii a virtual certainty." The full text of the article PDF icon is available online (PDF), as well as the abstract only (HTML). (www.uhpress.hawaii.edu/journals/ps/PS554p409.PDF; link added 07 January 2002 by PT)

"Snakes in the Grass on Maui" (Hurley 1997)
This article from the Maui News (23 November 1997) discusses the potentially dire impacts of the establishment of snakes in the Hawaiian Islands.

Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis)
Alan Holt (at the time of publication, Deputy Director of The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii) details shocking evidence of the havoc that the brown tree snake--if it becomes established--would certainly wreak on Hawaii's economy, quality of life, and natural resources. This article indicates that public awareness is a key factor in maintaining interest and support of the growing effort to defend Hawaii against this unwelcome pest.

BOOK REVIEW
Lloyd Loope reviews Sean McKeown's "A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of the Hawaiian Islands", pointing out the dangers of taking at face value the author's underplaying of the potential dangers of introduction of amphibians and reptiles to Hawaii.

For more online information about brown tree snakes in Hawaii, refer to www.hear.org/bts.


Caribbean frogs

Herpetological Review article: "Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii" PDF icon
This article documents the introduction of Caribbean frogs (Eleutherodactylus spp.) to Hawaii, and includes an extensive list of references regarding these frogs. (23 June 2001: Sorry for the large file size [1.8Mb]; soon a smaller version will be posted.) Posted with permission from Herpetological Review (published by the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles). Citation: Kraus, F., E.W. Campbell, A. Allison, and T. Pratt. 1999. Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii. Herpetol. Rev. 30:21-25. (Note: both plain-text [no images] and PDF versions are available.)

For more online information about Caribbean frogs in Hawaii, refer to www.hear.org/frogs.

 
 

Herp prevention (prevention of introduction of reptiles and amphibians)

Using pathway analysis to inform prevention strategies for alien reptiles and amphibians PDF icon
"Alien reptiles and amphibians are deserving of greater attention that has hitherto been bestowed upon them by managers and researchers. Eradication or control of established taxa will generally be infeasible, leaving prevention of introductions as the primary management tool for controlling herpetological invasions.... Because of variation in pathway importance, information on how taxonomic, temporal, and geographic variables co-vary with economic and social data may allow for predictive assessment of pathway risk for accidental introductions. In contrast, some predictive assessment of taxon risk was achieved using variables that measure climate-matching between native and introduced ranges, phylogenetic risk, and prior history of successful taxon establishment." (Citation: Kraus, F. 2008. Using pathway analysis to inform prevention strategies for alien reptiles and amphibians. Pp. 94-103 /in/ Witmer, G.W., W.C. Pitt, and K.A. Fagerstone (eds.), Managing vertebrate invasive species: proceedings of an international symposium. USDA/ APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado.)

 
 

Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER) reports

"Report to the Government of Niue on Invasive Plant Species of Environmental Concern"  PDF icon (and the 2004 PIER Niue report (update) PDF icon)
The Government of Niue requested assistance from the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, to conduct a survey of invasive plant species of environmental concern, similar to surveys previously conducted in Micronesia and American Samoa. The survey was carried out from 15-19 May 2000. The objectives, as with previous surveys, were to: (1) identify plant species that are presently causing problems to natural and semi-natural ecosystems; (2) identify species that, even though they are not presently a major problem, could spread more widely or are known to be problem species elsewhere; (3) confirm the absence of species that are a problem elsewhere and, if introduced to Niue, could be a threat there; and (4) make appropriate recommendations. (report by James C. Space and Tim Flynn)

Invasive plant species on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia PDF icon
This is a continuation of the survey of islands in Micronesia for invasive plant species requested by the Pacific Islands Committee, Council of Western State Foresters. A survey of other Micronesian islands was conducted in 1998 and was discussed in a previous report. This report is based on a survey of the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, from 24 to 28 March 2000. The objectives, as with the previous survey, were three-fold: (1) To identify plant species on the islands that are presently causing problems to natural and semi-natural ecosystems; (2) to identify species that, even though they are not presently a major problem, could spread more widely or spread to other islands where they are not present, potentially causing problems; and (3) to confirm the absence of species that are a problem elsewhere and, if introduced to Kosrae, could be a threat there. (report by James C Space, Barbara Waterhouse, Julie S. Denslow, Duane Nelson and Erick E. Waguk)

"Invasive Plant Species on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands"
This is a continuation of the survey of islands in Micronesia and American Samoa for invasive plant species requested by the Pacific Islands Committee, Council of Western State Foresters. A survey of other Micronesian islands was conducted in 1998 and was discussed in a previous report. This report summarizes a survey of the island of Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, on 5 April 2000. The objectives, as with the previous survey, were three-fold: (1) To identify plant species on the island that are presently causing problems to natural and semi-natural ecosystems; (2) to identify species that, even though they are not presently a major problem, could spread more widely or spread to other islands where they are not present, potentially causing problems; and (3) to confirm the absence of species that are a problem elsewhere and, if introduced to Rota, could be a threat there. (report by James C. Space, Barbara Waterhouse, Julie S. Denslow and Duane Nelson)

"Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia"  PDF icon
This is a continuation of the survey of islands in Micronesia and American Samoa for invasive plant species requested by the Pacific Islands Committee, Council of Western State Foresters. A survey of other Micronesian islands was conducted in 1998 and was discussed in a previous report. This report is based on a survey of several islands of Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia, from 30 March to 4 April 2000. The objectives, as with the previous survey, were three-fold: (1) To identify plant species on the islands that are presently causing problems to natural and semi-natural ecosystems; (2) to identify species that, even though they are not presently a major problem, could spread more widely or spread to other islands where they are not present, potentially causing problems; and (3) to confirm the absence of species that are a problem elsewhere and, if introduced to Chuuk, could be a threat there. While Chuuk has little remaining natural forest, most of these species would be a problem in secondary forests and agroforestry systems, as well. (report by James C Space, Barbara Waterhouse, Julie S. Denslow, Duane Nelson and and Thomas R. Mazawa)

"Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia" PDF icon
This report is based on perceptions gained from a three-week trip from July 19 to August 6, 1998, to the islands of Saipan and Tinian (Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands); Peleliu, Babelthaup and Koror (Republic of Palau); Pohnpei and Yap (Federated States of Micronesia) and Guam. The objectives were three-fold: (1) To identify species on the islands that are presently causing problems; (2) to identify species that, even though they are not presently a major problem, could spread to other islands where they are not present, potentially causing problems; and (3) to look for invasive species known to cause problems in ecosystems similar to the islands visited. (report by James C. Space & Marjorie Falanruw)

"Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa" PDF icon
This report is based on perceptions gained from a trip to American Samoa from 16 to 23 July 1999, including the islands of Tutuila, Ofu, Olosega and Ta'u. The objectives were three-fold: (1) To identify plant species on the islands that are presently causing problems to natural and semi-natural ecosystems; (2) to identify species that, even though they are not presently a major problem, could spread more widely or spread to other islands where they are not present, potentially causing problems; and (3) to confirm the absence of species that are a problem elsewhere and, if introduced to American Samoa, could be a threat there. (report by James C. Space & Tim Flynn)

For more online information about PIER, and to access other PIER products (invasive species lists, etc. from other Pacific islands), refer to the PIER website.


Legislation

International

A Guide to Desigining Legal and Institutional Frameworks on Alien Invasive Species PDF icon
A Guide to Desigining Legal and Institutional Frameworks on Alien Invasive Species PDF icon was produced by the IUCN International Law Centre. (URLs: www.iucn.org/themes/law/pdfdocuments/EPLP40EN.pdf; www.iucn.org/themes/law/elc01.html)

U.S. National

U.S. Presidential Executive Order #13112 RE: Invasive Species (03 Feb 1999)  PDF icon
U.S. Presidential Executive Order #13112 (03 Feb 1999) was issued "to prevent the introduction of invasive species and provide for their control and to minimize the economic, ecological, and human health impacts that invasive species cause".

State-by-State

Halting the Invasion: State Tools for Invasive Species Management
In August 2002, the Environmental Law Institute released its report entitled Halting the Invasion: State Tools for Invasive Species Management. The report analyzes the legal tools available at the state level to combat invasive species. Only those laws and policies approved through state legislation or agency rulemaking were addressed. The report highlights 17 invasive species tools found in state statutes and regulations. These tools are divided into five main categories: prevention, regulation, control and management, enforcement and implementation, and coordination. Each tool is defined, model state programs are described, and a chart is presented that indicates which states have the tool available. Finally, the report recommends that states evaluate which of three standards (gold, silver, or bronze) their invasive species laws and regulations currently meet. These standards can be used by states to determine how strong their existing programs are, where they have significant gaps, and where improvements can be made.

State of Hawaii

For full text of the Hawaii State noxious weed laws, seed laws, Hawaii law RE: pests for control or eradication, etc., see www.hear.org/weedlists/usa/HI.htm.

County of Maui

Maui County Resolution (03 March 2000) RE: invasive/harmful alien plant species PDF icon 
Maui County Council unanimously passed this resolution introduced by Council Chair Pat Kawano on 03 March 2000. The resolution is that the Council of the County of Maui "will not condone the purchase, planting, growing, sale, or distribution of invasive alien plant species on County-owned or leased properties, or in conjunction with any County-funded project; and that [the County of Maui] urges the Administration to ensure that any plant purchased, planted, grown, sold, distributed, or otherwise used or condoned by the County is correctly identified, and that the species is not known to be invasive elsewhere or likely to be invasive in Hawaii...." This resolution exemplifies an outstanding leadership position on the part of the Maui County Council, as it sets an excellent "precautionary principle" precedent to be followed by other counties; state, local, and other governments; and by private landowners & contractors.

Draft Maui County bill RE: alien pest species (10 April 2005, Maui News)
"A bill still in its early draft stages would require landowners to keep their property free of designated 'Maui priority pest species' or pay the costs of having them removed." (article by Valerie Monson, The Maui News, 10APR2005) (URL: www.mauinews.com/print_version.aspx?id=7758)


Conservation

Promoting Conservation through Effective Public Speaking  PDF icon
This article from "Conservation in Practice" (Spring 2001 Vol. 2, No. 2) provides tips for speakers seeking to promote conservation through effective public speaking. (Posted 24SEP2002. Reprinted with permission from Conservation In Practice. Copyright 2002 by the Society for Conservation Biology.  For subscription information and back issue orders, please visit www.conservationbiology.org/InPractice)

IUCN Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss Caused by Alien Invasive Species
IUCN Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss Caused by Alien Invasive Species was produced by the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of The World Conservation Union (IUCN). (URLs: www.issg.org/IUCNISGuidelines.html; www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/; www.iucn.org)


Other

How to collect and prepare forest insect & disease organisms and plant specimens for identification PDF icon
This booklet was produced by the USDA Forest Service in 1980, and is still relevant today. (How to collect and prepare forest insect & disease organisms and plant specimens for identification. 1980. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Area, State & Private Forestry. General Report SA-GR13 (April 1980). URL: www.hear.org/articles/pdfs/usda_fs_sa_gr13.pdf)

Collecting plant disease and insect pest samples for problem diagnosis PDF icon
This article describes the basic requirements for collecting, preserving and submitting plant insect and disease samples to the Agricultural Diagnostic Service Center (ADSC), a branch of the Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR), University of Hawaii at Manoa. (Collecting plant disease and insect pest samples for problem diagnosis. 2006. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Soil and Crop Management report SCM-14 (July 2006). URL: www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/SCM-14.pdf)

The dark-rumped petrel in Haleakala Crater (Larson 1967)
This previously-unpublished document is a study of the life history and ecology of (what is now known as) the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis [referred to in the document by an older name, Pterodroma phaeopygia subsp. sandwichensis]) in Haleakala National Park (Maui, Hawaii). (Larson, James W. 1967. The dark-rumped petrel in Haleakala Crater. Unpublished manuscript from the files of the Maui Baseyard of the Division of Forestry and Wildlife [DOFAW]/Department of Land and Natural Resources [DLNR]/State of Hawaii. URL: http://www.hear.org/articles/pdfs/larson1967.pdf; gateway page: http://www.hear.org/articles/larson1967/)

Lanai bird survey 1975-1976 (Hirai)
This previously-unpublished document reports the results of a field survey of the island birds and small mammals of the island of Lanai (Hawaii) conducted from August 1975 through the first weeks of November 1976 to provide baseline information for the assessment of possible environmental affects caused by the United States Department of Agriculture Hawaiian Fruit Flies Laboratory Lanai eradication program. (Hirai, L.T. 1976. Lanai bird survey 1975-1976. Unpublished manuscript from the files of the Maui Baseyard of the Division of Forestry and Wildlife [DOFAW]/Department of Land and Natural Resources [DLNR]/State of Hawaii. URL: http://www.hear.org/articles/pdfs/hirai19751976.pdf; gateway page: http://www.hear.org/articles/hirai19751976/)


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